The Present Subjunctive: Irregular First Persons

The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action. The subjunctive mood is rarely used in English, but it is widely used in Spanish.

Use this verb quizzer to practice conjugating verbs in the present subjunctive. To learn when to use the subjunctive, please refer to the eight exercises in the Grammar Tutorial, starting with Subjunctive Part I.

For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps:

  1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative.
  2. Then drop the -o ending.
  3. Finally, add the following endings:

-ar verbs:
-e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, en

-er and -ir verbs:
-a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an

This formula works for verbs that have irregular “yo” forms in the present indicative. Study these examples:

conocer (yo conozco)
conozco – o = conozc

conozc + a = conozca
conozc + as = conozcas
conozc + a = conozca
conozc + amos = conozcamos
conozc + áis = conozcáis
conozc + an = conozcan

tener (yo tengo)
tengo – o = teng

teng + a = tenga
teng + as = tengas
teng + a = tenga
teng + amos = tengamos
teng + áis = tengáis
teng + an = tengan

salir (yo salgo)
salgo – o = salg

salg + a = salga
salg + as = salgas
salg + a = salga
salg + amos = salgamos
salg + áis = salgáis
salg + an = salgan